Expert advice on planning reports for Munich Airport II
For five days (April 26th to April 30th, 1971) an international examination committee consulted at the invitation of Flughafen München GmbH on the planning reports for planning phase 1, which had been prepared by six working groups of domestic and foreign engineering offices over the course of nine months .
Planning phase 1 includes the creation of a land use and function plan for the area of the new airport as well as the representation of the 1st expansion stage with a capacity of 12 million passengers per year. For the first time, the planning documents for an airport were jointly discussed by leading international airport and traffic experts.
The different points of view with regard to airport planning, which were expressed in the six reports, led to lively discussions among the members of the examination committee. All the more so since the Commission included representatives from authorities and airport companies from the USA, England and France who are either planning or building new commercial airports themselves with various basic concepts. In spite of these differing views, the advice of the expert commission also led to recommendations of a fundamental nature being made which, in addition to the new Munich airport, should also be of fundamental interest for the planning of other airport facilities.
The work of the nineteen-member examination committee was divided into two parts:
Evaluation of the proposals contained in the planning report and development of planning recommendations.
When assessing the six planning reports, the commission assumed the following basic requirements, among other things: The available airport site must be able to be optimally used from the 1st stage of development up to a theoretical stage of development; Theoretical final stage of expansion must be kept flexible, the systems must not only be functional, but also be economical, ie they must be able to be built and operated at the lowest possible cost.
The Commission particularly welcomed the fact that some experts carried out detailed investigations into the integration of the airport into the infrastructure of the area, taking into account the regional planning objectives of the Munich region.
Individual recommendations of the examination committee:
Traffic and regional planning:
In order to create an optimal overall solution, it was necessary to lay the traffic connections of the planned airport site in such a way that they can be used not only for the first expansion stage, but also for the future. In addition, the Commission attached particular importance to the fact that the long-term interests of regional planning in the greater Munich area should be taken into account in connection with the airport's transport links.
In detail, the commission made the following regional and traffic planning recommendations:
- The economic stimulation effect to be expected from the existence of the airport for the surrounding area should be effective on all sides. The measures necessary in connection with the development of the airport must therefore not be oriented unilaterally to the west; rather, they are to be designed in such a way that they also have a structure-improving effect on the northern and eastern surroundings.
- In this sense, it is to be demanded that an access road to the airport from the west as well as from the east is already created in the 1st construction phase. At the same time, the connection of a rail-bound mass transport system from the west is to be established in this first expansion stage. The possibility of integration to the east by rail is to be kept open and implemented as required.
- Based on the existing plans of the federal, state and city authorities, the best possible connection to the national trunk road network as well as to regional and inter-community roads is to be aimed for.
- In the case of supply measures (water, sewage, etc.), joint solutions should be sought with the municipalities in the vicinity of the airport. Underground structures are to be designed in such a way that no damaging groundwater accumulation occurs.
- The necessary new settlement zones for those employed at the airport, which are largely dependent on the planned traffic structure in the surrounding area, should not relate to the airport alone. In particular, they should be located in such a way that other workplaces as well as adequate central facilities are easily accessible from them.
- The recreational opportunities that have not yet been developed in the north of the Munich region require special attention in view of the population growth to be expected with the construction of the airport. Infrastructure measures required for the airport, as well as housing estates and industrial areas, must not impair the open spaces that are important for recreation. In particular, a longitudinal intersection of the Isar floodplain by road or rail lines must be avoided.
- The traffic development in the airport area should take place through a central west / east airport axis. The dimensioning of the traffic areas should be geared towards the final capacity, with the gradual implementation being determined by the traffic demand.
- When routing the road within the airport, the basic requirement must be taken into account that the functional areas that are not part of the passenger handling area must be connected to public transport and via internal airport roads as required. Attention is drawn to the requirement that the road should be as free as possible from intersections.
With regard to internal airport transport, the Commission takes the view that the S-Bahn and its fleet of vehicles can only meet the special requirements of internal airport distribution to a limited extent. On the other hand, the development of the passenger area through the S-Bahn connection via the west-east central axis is of great importance. The number and allocation of the stops depend on the definition of the type and location of the passenger terminal.
Since it has not yet been possible to offer an airport-internal means of transport that has been tried and tested in practice and that meets the various requirements for Munich II Airport, the commission recommends planning a conventional connection via the road as a second solution for the airport-internal traffic of the 1st construction stage.
Recommendation of the commission on the arrangement of the building systems of the 1st expansion stage and allocation of the functional areas
The commission recommended that the first construction stage be arranged compactly and in a central location between the runways in the interests of short connecting routes. The procedure should be such that the passenger handling systems from a vertical reference line to be precisely determined to the east, the other systems, such as. B. freight and maintenance area, on-site service, airport administration building and the like, are to be developed to the west. The commission recommended that the passenger handling buildings be arranged at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the airport. With the given runway distance of 2300 m, this arrangement results in an optimal number of aircraft positions on the areas available between the runways and taxiways.
The Commission could not make up its mind to propose an opinion in its entirety as a basis for further planning. As a result of the evaluation it was rather found that none of the six planning proposals in their entirety can be used as a basis for further planning, but the total of the reports contains the material of individual proposals that is required for processing the further planning stage.
The members of the international examination commission came from the USA, Great Britain, France, Switzerland and the Federal Republic. In detail it concerns:
- Jacques Block, Aeroport de Paris, Paris
- Dr. Heinrich Brunner, Economic Office of the City of Munich
- Wulf-Diether Graf zu Castell, Managing Director of Flughafen München GmbH, Munich
- Senior Administrative Director Theodor Fischer, Department for Urban Research and Urban Development of the City of Munich
- Heinz Galli, Vice Director Ground Operations at Swissair, Zurich
- George V. Hole, British Airports Authority, London
- Ministerial Director Prof. Hans Koch, Supreme Building Authority, Bayer. State Ministry of the Interior, Munich
- Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Nitschke, Technical Authorized Officer of Flughafen München GmbH, Munich
- Dr. Ing. Heinz Peter Piper, Managing Director of Flughafen Hannover-Langenhagen GmbH, Hanover
- Karl-Albert Reitz, German Lufthansa AG, Ground Handling Services, Frankfurt
- Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Schaechterle, Chair for Traffic and Urban Planning, Technical University of Munich
- Senior Building Director Dipl.-Ing. Raimund Schoe-ner, Planning Association for the External Economic Area, Munich
- Government Building Director Fritz Schultz, Head of the New Airport Construction Office, Bayer. State Ministry of Finance, Financial Construction Administration, Munich
- Government Building Director Dr. Heinrich Sprenger, Federal Ministry of Transport, Bonn
- Dipl.-Ing. Manfred Steffen, Head of the Planning Department at Flughafen GmbH, Munich
- Thomas M. Sullivan, Dallas-Fort Worth Regional Airport Board, Texas
- Senior government building officer Dipl.-Ing. Werner Toepel, Bayer. State Ministry for Economics and Transport, Munich
- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Werner Treibel, Managing Director of the German Airports Association, Stuttgart
- John P. Veerling, Port of New York Authority, New York.